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Colleges in California That Offer Fire Science

Students hanging out on college campus.

Wildfire-prone California employs more firefighters than any other in the United States.The federal government s 2014 National Climate Assessment report projects that increasing warming and droughts caused by climate change will contribute to an increase in wildfires in California. Therefore, it’s not surprising that 64 of the state’s 112 community college campuses offer fire science courses. Besides certificate programs, two colleges offer bachelor s degrees, and one university offers a master s degree in fire protection engineering.

Certificate Programs

Santa Ana College, home to California’s oldest fire technology program, is among the state’s community colleges offering certificates of training for completion of fire science-related courses. Students at the Southern California campus can receive certificates in Firefighter I, Auto Extrication and Hazardous Materials First Responder. The college also offers Rescue Systems I, Fire Control III, ICS 200 and Low-angle Rescue certificates. At Northern California’s College of San Francisco, students can earn California Firefighter I, Fire Officer and Fire Protection certification.

Associate Degree Programs

Students at Northern California’s Los Medanos College can receive an Associate of Science in Fire Technology upon completion of a two-year program. Courses include the study of fire behavior and fire prevention, as well as emergency medical technician training. Northern California’s Sierra College is among other community colleges offering an associate degree in fire technology. The program at Sierra College was designed under the guidelines of the state, National Fire Academy, Federal Emergency Management Agency and the U.S. Department of Transportation.

Bachelor’s Degree Programs

Cogswell Polytechnical College in Sunnyvale offers a Bachelor of Science in Fire Science. The program, which includes classroom and online courses, requires a concentration in Fire Administration or Fire Prevention/Technology. Because the program is sponsored by the National Fire Academy’s Fire and Emergency Services Higher Education Program, students also can earn National Fire Academy certification. Students at California State University-Los Angeles can earn a Bachelor of Science in Fire Protection and Technology. In addition to fire protection courses, the program requires courses in business communications, public administration and political sociology.

Master’s Degree Program

At California Polytechnic State University in San Luis Obispo, on California s central coast, students can earn a Master of Science in Fire Protection Engineering. Graduate students at the university s College of Engineering learn how to use science and technology to protect people and property from fires. They learn how to evaluate buildings for risk, design systems to better control and investigate fires. Students also learn how to work with architects, other engineers and local fire departments to better protect communities.

References

About the Author

S.R. Haines is a veteran writer whose work has been published by newspapers, magazines, international news wire services and nonprofit publications on topics ranging from breaking news and politics to travel, parenting, education, business and technology. She earned a Bachelor of Journalism from the University of Texas at Austin.

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Civil Lawsuits for False Imprisonment

When one person is unlawfully detained and held by another, it may amount to false (also called wrongful) imprisonment. This type of act can lead to a civil claim by the detainee, and lawsuit for monetary damages.

In a nutshell, false imprisonment occurs when someone (who we’ll call Person A) is detained unwillingly by another person (Person B). What’s more, Person B must:

  • intend to detain the plaintiff and
  • do so without lawful authority.

False arrest is a form of false imprisonment, but it has unique elements. A false arrest claim will typically involve a legal authority. while false imprisonment can be committed by anyone, regardless of whether the imprisonment was preceded by an arrest.

Let’s take a closer look at the elements of a false imprisonment claim, which can form the basis of an intentional tort personal injury lawsuit.

Unwillingly Detained

For a plaintiff to be unwillingly detained, she must be confined to a particular area and must not be permitted to leave. The area can be as small as a chair or as large as a geographic area, for example a warrant that prevents her from leaving the country. A detention does not occur when someone is prevented from entering a particular area.

The detention must involve either actual force or the threat of the use of force. Locking someone in a jail, in a closet, tying them to a chair or holding their arm and not letting go are obvious uses of force, but anything that makes it impossible for someone to voluntarily leave an area will qualify.

A threat of force will also create a detention if the threat would make a reasonable person believe they would be hurt in some way if they attempted to leave the area. This includes being tricked, for example being threatened with a toy gun — the key is that any reasonable person would believe they had no choice.

The harm threatened doesn’t necessarily need to be bodily; a believable threat to property or the plaintiff’s reputation will also suffice. Note that the threat does not need to be about immediate consequences, but it generally must be in the near-future.

The person detained cannot have an easy means of escape that he knows will avoid the threatened harm. If there is such a means and the person does not use it, the detention is considered voluntary and the defendant will not be held liable for false imprisonment.

For example, if someone is stopped by a store employee, but is not told to stay in the store and is not otherwise prevented from leaving, no imprisonment occurs even if the “detained” person thinks that she is required to stay.

Things like apprehension of a public struggle or a reasonable belief that someone is a cop or other authority are sufficient to eliminate the possibility of easy escape.

Defendant Intended to Detain the Plaintiff

It is not enough that a defendant accidentally or negligently created the conditions that confined the plaintiff, for example locking a closet door not knowing someone was inside. However, false imprisonment does occur if the defendant intends to confine one person, but mistakenly confines another.

Detention was Unlawful

In the majority of cases, whether the detention was lawful hinges on whether the arrest was lawful. Even if an arrest was lawful, keeping the plaintiff in custody after she is found not guilty — or keeping her in custody longer than her sentence allows — will create grounds for false imprisonment.

The issue of whether a detention was lawful also arises in the context of shoplifters. Most states have statutes that dictate under what circumstances and for how long a store owner can detain a suspected shoplifter.

Generally, the store owner must have “probable cause” to believe that the person who is being detained has actually stolen something. Without probable cause, the detention is unlawful and the store owner has committed false imprisonment, as long as the other elements are satisfied (no easy escape, etc.). Even if probable cause does exist, if the store owner detains the plaintiff for too long or in an unreasonable or excessive manner, he will still be liable for false imprisonment.

Depending on the state, whether there was probable cause is decided by the judge or the jury (or both). Some states have statutes that dictate how long the store owner can detain a suspected shop-lifter. For those states without statutes (which is the majority) the general rule is that the duration and manner of the detention cannot be unreasonable under the specific circumstances of the case.

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Public Schools and Districts Data Files

For users’ convenience, the public schools and districts data files are posted in Excel and tab delimited text formats. These data files are updated daily; therefore, the indicated file sizes are approximate, as the files may change from day to day:

Contains all active, pending, closed, and merged public schools and districts.

  • Public Districts (XLS) | TXT (Updated 5:00 A.M. Daily)

    Contains all active and pending districts and county offices of education.

  • For details on what information are contained in each file, please refer to the corresponding file structure below.

    For details on modifications made to these files and to the file structures, refer to the Changes to the Public Schools File Web page.

    File Structure

    • File Structure: Public Schools and Districts (Revised 08-Aug-2016)

    Descriptions of the elements in the downloadable public schools and districts files.

  • File Structure: Public Districts (Posted 28-Mar-2016)

    Descriptions of the elements in the downloadable public districts files.

  • Download Instructions

    • Schools and Districts Data Filtering Instructions (Revised 28-Mar-2016)
    • Importing Data Files into Access and Excel (Revised 28-Mar-2016)

    Instructions for importing the Public Schools and Districts text data file into Microsoft Access and Excel.

    Additional Data

    Below are links to additional data that were previously included in the Public Schools Database. Because these data are not updated as regularly as CDS data are updated, the CDE no longer includes these data in the Public Schools Database.

    Locale Codes

    Locale codes may be obtained from the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) on the NCES Public Elementary/Secondary School Universe Survey Data Photo schools in california Web page. To learn more about locale codes, visit the NCES Identification of Rural Locales Photo schools in california Web page.

    Legislative Districts

    This document is alphabetized by local educational agency and includes both summary and detail sections. The detail report includes the name of the current elected official, their party affiliation, and the percentage of the total school district area that is distributed among each intersecting legislative district. This list is updated every two years, when the school district boundaries are updated.

    Additional information may be obtained from the California State Legislative Districts Photo schools in california Web page. Note that the California legislative district boundaries are redrawn every ten years. Congressional district maps Photo schools in california are available from the California Citizens Redistricting Commission.

    CDS Listserv

    Would you like to stay up-to-date on changes being made to the CDS data, Public Schools Database, or California School Directory? Join the CDS Users listserv today!





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    lvn to rn bridge programs being cancelled in california.

    Rumors spread like wildfire! Keep that in mind, however, I do know about some programs that are not taking any LVN to RNs this fall semester due to budget cuts. With that said, you should call the nursing department at the school of your choice. Better to hear it from the horse’s mouth just in case this is not affecting your program.

    I haven’t heard of any new laws that have passed stating cancellation of the LVN to RN bridge program. However, many programs are being cut. Also, a lot of schools, for some, reason prefer to teach new RN’s staight from the begining. I am in an LVN-RN Bridge program as we speak. I got in pretty quickly but that’s due to the hospital I work for has a grant with the school. Many of my friends have had to wait quite awhile to get in. Also, more requirements are being established to even apply to the program. Yes, ALL of your prerequisutes must be completed prior to applying. You also have to take what’s called a TEAS exam. Your science classes must be withing 7 years of applying otherwise, you need to retake the science classes. Most schools, not all, require Chem, A P, Micro, Sociology 101, LIfe Span Development, certain math classes etc to apply. It’s best to truck through all of your gen ed then apply, taking science last so it doesn’t expire while you wait.

    I have mixed emotions on my career path. Part of me wishes I just went for my RN vs LVN to RN. But then again, I think I will be a much stronger RN because of the experience! Don’t quit, you’ve put too much time and effort in to it.

    There are some schools that might be easier to get in to such as Antelope Valley College. Be careful with any online courses that promise LVN to BSN such as The COllege Network. Beware of private schools. You must make sure if you choose that route that the classes you are taking are regionally accredited not nationally accredited. Only regionally accredited classes will transfer to state schools and CC’s. The nationally accredited schools will only intratransfer so therefore, you’ll only be able to go to places like University of Phoenix or National University (National is actually both regional and national).

    Good luck. Be sure to check the BRN website to see which schools are accredited and are in good standing.





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    Top MPA Programs in California

    Students looking to pursue a Master of Public Administration degree should consider the top MPA programs in California. MPA programs prepare individuals to pursue leadership and higher level positions in public administration in a variety of organizations. The degree is interdisciplinary and covers a wide range of topics related to the public sector.

    Details about the Top MPA Programs in California

    Examples of Top MPA Programs in California include the University of Southern California, California American University, and San Francisco State University. The MPA degree program at the University of Southern California is one of the oldest and most distinguished MPA programs in the U.S. The program is offered full-time for two years or part-time for three years. The master’s in public administration program at California American University is intended for working adult professionals. The program requires at least 60-quarter units including 12 required core courses and three elective courses. San Francisco State University’s MPA program requires 39 to 43 units including foundation courses, electives, an internship, and culminating experience. San Francisco State University also offers a variety of related undergraduate majors. In addition to the campus-based programs, there are various Online California MPA Programs.

    Financial Aid, Scholarships, and Online Options for The Top MPA Programs in California

    California offers state-funded financial aid programs to assist students in paying for the cost of tuition and other related expenses of pursuing higher education. The Cal Grant A and Cal Grant B are examples of state aid programs. In addition to state and federal financial aid programs, scholarships are available for students enrolled in the top California MPA Programs like the Robert Odell Scholarship and the Herman J. McKenzie Memorial Scholarship Fund. Many of the best MPA Programs in California offer accredited online public administration degrees. California State University Dominguez Hill offers one of the top MPA Programs online. Its Masters of Public Administration program enables students to complete all courses online while maintaining career obligations. It is open to full and part-time students. It requires 36 units including 27 units of core courses and nine units of electives. The top MPA programs in California are excellent options for those wanting to pursue a graduate degree in public administration.





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    Lawyers and Legal Help

    There are many ways to find legal help. Read the rest of this section to understand what types of legal help there are and which of them may be best for you. Finding help is not easy. If you talk to someone but they cannot help you, ask them who can. Do not give up!

    If you need to find legal help quickly and know what kind of help you need, here is a list of resources:

    • Look for help from your court .
    • Use LawHelpCa.org to find legal aid offices, lawyer referral services, and other free and low-cost services in your county.
    • If you need help with domestic violence, call the National Domestic Violence Hotline at 1-800-799-SAFE (7233) (TDD: 1-800-787-3224). You can also call your local domestic violence shelter. If you need help right now, call 911.
    • If you are an unaccompanied undocumented minor or are trying to get help for one, find free legal help in your area .
    • Find immigration help and resources .
    • Use the State Bar of California’s Find an Attorney .
    • Read the several publications by the State Bar to help you find the right lawyer for you .
    • Find a lawyer referral service in your county.
    • Call 1-800-668-1005 — a 24-hour hot line that provides free legal help to Mexican citizens living in California.
    • Look up “Lawyers” or “Attorneys” in the Yellow Pages of your phone book.
    • Ask a friend or family member. Many people have legal issues and they may be able to refer you to someone that helped them and can help you.

    If your problem involves 1 of the topics on our home page, you can also read the information on that topic to find help with your problem.

    If you have a legal problem in another state (outside of California ), you can visit these websites for more information:

    • American Bar Association Consumer’s Guide to Legal Help
      This website can help you find information and free and low-cost legal help in many states.
    • LawHelp.org
      This website can help you find legal help and resources in each state in the United States.

    Quick Links





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    Flight/Transport Nurse

    What Does a Flight/Transport Nurse Do?

    Flight nursing, or transport nursing, includes critical care, emergency medical services and disaster response services to patients prior to hospital admittance. They are highly trained medical professions that make life and death decisions very quickly. They must be able to work well in teams and react quickly to changes in patient and environmental conditions. These nurses can work with patients located in remote areas that can t reach hospitals in time or disaster sites like car accidents and scenes of natural disasters. Flight nurses perform the necessary medical care while airlifting patients to safety and to the proper medical facilities. Some flight nurses can even travel with private patients that suffer from dangerous medical conditions during airline flights to ensure their safety. These nurses must also be highly skilled communicators as they act as liaisons between themselves and the awaiting medical crews on the ground. They should have expertise in mechanical ventilation, vasoactive medication, and other intensive care skills.

    How Can I Become a Flight/Transport Nurse?

    Typically, nurses that are interested in working in this field must hold an active license as a registered nurse and have proof of recent training in life support systems and experience working in emergency settings. To become a registered nurse, one must earn a two or four year nursing degree and pass the state licensing exam for RNs. After working for three to five years in an intensive care unit, critical care unit or emergency room, registered nurses can apply for the flight nurse program. Some programs also require nurses to possess Emergency Medical Technician-Basic or Emergency Medical Technician-Paramedic certifications. Flight nurses can also become certified as Certified Flight Registered Nurses (CFRNs) from the American Association of Critical Care Nurses (AACN). This exam is computer based, contains 180 questions and generally takes around three hours to complete. Flight and transport nurses should also be in good physical shape, be agile and have a great deal of stamina.

    What Is the Career and Salary Outlook for a Flight/Transport Nurse?

    This is a growing field that has resulted from the increase in the aging population in the United States and natural disasters, like tornados, flooding, hurricanes and more. The outlook for all registered nurses in extremely positive as the nation is faced with a nursing shortage and there is not enough supply to meet the growing need. According to Salary Wizard, the average annual salary of a flight/transport nurse can range from $60,000 $75,000 per year. This number will vary depending on one s education, certification, experience level and geographic location. One of the most obvious drawbacks to working as a flight nurse is the dangerous conditions and environment one must work in. From repelling down a ravine, wading in icy waters, and flying through bad storms, these situations are far more dangerous than working in a hospital emergency room. But for some flight nurses, the adrenaline and challenge of the job can be a very rewarding aspect.

    Top Nursing Colleges

    Kaplan University – Certification, Associate’s Bachelor’s Degree.
    Kaplan University has a well respected nursing program for students looking to obtain their degree online. Kaplan is an accredited university with a history of placing students in high-growth nursing careers.

    Grand Canyon University – B.S. in Nursing (Registered Nurse – B.S.N.)
    Grand Canyon University is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission, and offers nursing degrees at affordable prices. Grand Canyon University allows students to practice what they learn with hands on teaching methods.

    Liberty University – Master’s Degree.
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    Certified Used Cars

    Did a car dealer tell you that you were purchasing a certified used car. Did the car not live up to your expectations? If so, California law may be able to help. Specifically, in addition to California s used car lemon law. which applies to all used automobiles sold with warranties, California Vehicle Code Section 11713.18 imposes mandatory requirements for all automobiles that car dealers sell as certified pre-owned vehicles, or which are described using any similar terms.

    Requirements For Certified Used Cars

    The first (and one of the most important) requirement applicable to certified pre-owned automobiles sold in California is that car dealerships are not allowed to describe a used car as certified if it is being sold on an as-is basis. That means that at least some minimal warranty will likely accompany the sale of a certified used car, and therefore California s used car lemon law will typically apply.

    Additionally, whenever a California used car dealer represents that a used car is certified, or describes it using any similar terms, then to the extent of what the dealer knows or should know. the following must all be true:

    1. the car s odometer must be accurate;
    2. the vehicle has not been repurchased under any state lemon law or the federal lemon law; and
    3. the automobile must not have previously sustained frame or unibody damage;

    The following requirements also apply to certified used car sales, regardless of what the dealers actually know or should know:

    1. the vehicle s title (or titles if more than one state has issued a title) cannot previously have been branded as a lemon law buyback, or as a flood, junk, salvage, or nonrepairable vehicle;
    2. the car cannot have previously sustained damage in a collision, fire, or flood that (even after the repair of such damage) materially decreases its performance or safety; and
    3. the term certified cannot be employed by used car dealers in a manner that is untrue or misleading.

    California law also mandates that prior to the sale of any certified used car the dealer must give the buyer a copy of the inspection report showing which specific components of the vehicle were inspected in the certification process. An example of a certified pre-owned automobile checklist is pictured below.

    Modified Form Originally Created by the Reynolds Reynolds Company

    Remedies Available if a Dealer Violates California s Certified Used Car Rules

    California Vehicle Code Section 11713.18 provides powerful remedies for consumers damaged by dealers fraudulent or misleading use of the term certified (including any failure to comply with the above-listed rule). Specifically, Vehicle Code Section 11713.18 specifies that any violation of California s certified used car rules can be prosecuted under California s Consumers Legal Remedies Act. The Consumers Legal Remedies Act (or the CLRA as it is commonly referred to) is one of California s most powerful and useful consumer protection statutes. It permits car buyers to obtain compensatory damages, punitive damages (under some circumstances, and injunctions to force dealers to cease their illegal conduct. The CLRA also permits consumers to bring class actions on behalf of other consumers who are victims of the same illegal conduct.

    Most importantly, the CLRA permits prevailing consumers to recover from defendant car dealerships their attorneys fees and court costs. That means that if a car dealer violated California s certified used car rules, then you can sue the dealer for breaking the law, and forced the dealer (and not you) to pay all of your lawyer s fees and court costs.

    Want to Talk to An Expert Lemon Law Attorney About Your Certified Used Car?

    The Vachon Law Firm provides free consultations in all certified used car, California lemon law, fraud, and repossession cases. So if you purchased a certified used car or truck, and you think that it does not qualify for the certified designation, then call the Vachon Law Firm toll free today at 1-855-4-LEMON-LAW (1-855-453-6665). We ll listen to your complaint, assess your legal rights, and tell you whether we think we can help. You can also contact us via email.

    The Vachon Law Firm typically takes certified used car cases on a contingency-fee basis.





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